Glucose (chemical formula C6H12O6) is also known as corn Glucose, corn sugar, referred to as Glucose. Chemical name :2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentacyl hexaldehyde, English other name :Dextrose, Cornsugar, Grapesugar, Bloodsugar. It is one of the most widely distributed and important monosaccharides in nature. It is a polyhydroxy aldehyde.
Glucose in its pure form is a colorless crystal, sweet but not as sweet as sucrose (which the average person cannot taste), soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. Natural glucose aqueous solution rotates to the right, so it is “dextrose”.
Glucose plays an important role in the field of biology. It is the energy source of living cells and the intermediate product of metabolism, that is, the main energy supply substance of living things. Plants produce glucose through photosynthesis. It is widely used in confectionery manufacturing and medicine field.
The research history of
1747 German chemist S. Marggraf isolated glucose for the first time in Berlin, In 1749 he published this process in the German “Chemical Experiments on the extraction of sucrose from several plants produced in Germany” (German “Experiences Chimiques faites dans le dessein de Tirer UN veritable sucre de) Diverses Plantes, Qui Croissent dans nos Contrees “), p. 90 :” The raisins are softened by wetting them with a small amount of water, and the extracted juice is then pressed, which, after refinement and concentration, produces a sugar.” (“Les Raisins Secs, Etant Humectes d’une Petite quantite d’eau, de Maniere qu’ils Mollissent, Peuvent alors etre piles, & Le SUC Qu ‘on en Exprime, Etant Depure & Epaissi, Fournira une espece de Sucre”). The sugar margraves discovered was glucose.
However, glucose was not named until 1838, when the English name glucose was derived from the French word glucose. It was first created by a French professor Eugene Melchior Peligot (1811-1890). It came from the German word gleukos, unfermented sweet fruit wine, The prefix gluc- derives from the German glykys, meaning sweet , while the suffix ose indicates its chemical classification, indicating that it is a carbohydrate.
In the same year, Louis JacquesThenard, Joseph Louis gay-lussac, jean-baptiste biot, and jean-baptiste Andre dumas Jean Baptiste AndreDumas, a quartet of French scientists who have published a review of post-Peligo’s academic papers, It is entitled “Rapport Sur UN Memoire de M. Peligiot “(Intitule: Recherches sur la nature et les proprietes chimiques des sucres“. On page 109, it says :” Those substances that come from grapes, starch, honey and even cause diabetes have the same composition and properties. Name this single substance glucose. (“Il Resulte des Comparaisons Faites Par M. Peligot, Que le Sucre de Raisin, Celui d ‘Amidon, Celui de diabetes et Celui de Miel ont Parfaitement la meme composition et les memes proprietes, Et constituent UN seul Corps que nous proposons d ‘Appeler Glucose (1). (1) γλευ ος, mout, vin doux.”)
Due to the important role of glucose in organisms, understanding its chemical composition and structure became an important topic of organic chemistry in the 19th century. In 1884, Emile Fischer started working on sugar. At that time, there were only four known monosaccharides: two haldoses (glucose, galactose) and two hketoses (fructose, sorbide), which had the same molecular formula C6H6O6. H. iK Ha N I, a chemist from Munich University, preliminously proved that glucose and galactose were straight chain pentahydroxy aldehydes. Fructose and sorbitose are linear pentahydroxy ketones.
Fisher found that glucose, fructose, and mannose formed the same vein as benomel, and thus inferred that all three sugars had the same configuration below the second carbon atom. Based on Van ‘Thoff and eLeBl’s stereoisomerism, Fischer deduced that there were 16 possible configurations of aldosugars. By means of oxidation, reduction, degradation and addition, by 1891, he had determined the configurations of all members of the D series of haldoses. In 1892, German chemist Fischer determined the chain structure of glucose and its stereoisomer, and because of its great achievements in stereochemistry, won the 1902 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Physical properties of folding
Glucose colorless crystalline or white crystalline or granular powder; Odorless, sweet, hygroscopic, soluble in water, melting point 146℃,
___________ optical activity
The specific rotation value of α -D-glucose at 20 ℃ light is +52.2.
The maximum concentration of a single glucose solution at 20 ° C is 50%.
The specific sweetness of α -D-glucose was 0.7.
_____ the viscosity
The viscosity of glucose increases with the increase of temperature .
Density: 1.544 g/cm
Melting point: 153-158 ºC
Boiling point :410.797ºC at 760 mmHg
Flash: DHS 202.243 C
Refractive index: N20 /D 1.362
Storage conditions :2-8ºC
It is the most widely distributed monosaccharide in nature. Glucose contains five hydroxyl groups and one aldehyde group and has the properties of polyols and aldehydes.
Decomposition is easy under alkaline conditions. Should be sealed storage. After being taken orally, it is absorbed quickly and used by tissues after entering the body. 1mol of glucose is fully oxidized by the body and releases 2870KJ of energy. Part of this energy is converted into 30 or 32 molatps, and the rest is released as heat energy to maintain body temperature. It can also be converted into glycogen or fat storage by liver or muscle.
The aldehyde group in the ⑴ molecule has reductive properties and can react with silver ammonia solution :CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO+2Ag(NH3)2OH(water bath heating)→ CH2OH(CHOH)4COONH4+2Ag↓+3NH3+H2O, is oxidized to ammonium gluconate.
The aldehyde group can also be reduced to hexanol.
⑶ There are multiple hydroxyl groups in the molecule, which can be esterified with acids.
Glucose oxidation reaction in the body of the organism, release heat (C6H12O6+6O2(oxygen)+6H2O==6CO2+12H2O+ energy).
⑸ glucose can be prepared by hydrolysis of starch under the catalytic action of enzyme or sulfuric acid.
⑹ Plant photosynthesis :6CO2+6H2O(chlorophyll, sunlight catalysis)–C6H12O6+6O2.
Reaction equation of glucose with newly prepared copper hydroxide:
CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO+2Cu(OH)2- heated ->CH2OH(CHOH)4COOH+Cu2O↓+2H2O.
(8) Glucose is decomposed into water and carbon dioxide under certain conditions. 
(9) Hydrolysis of maltose :C12H22O11+H2O(catalyst)→2CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO
(10) hydrolysis of starch and cellulose C6H10O5)n+nH2O(catalyst)→nCH2OH(CHOH)4CHO
The preparation methods
1, industrial preparation
1. It is purified and concentrated from carbohydrate aqueous solution obtained by partial hydrolysis of edible corn starch with food-grade acid and/or enzyme. Due to the degree of hydrolysis, the amount of D-glucose contained can vary greatly. Those made from corn starch are said to be “corn syrup”.
2. Glucose can be starch as raw material, hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid or dilute sulfuric acid. It can also be made of starch as raw material under the action of starch saccharification enzyme.
2. Laboratory system
Fold and edit this brief introduction to compounds
Folding basic information
Chinese name: glucose
Chinese alias: D-glucose; α -D-glucose; D-(+) -glucose; Glucose syrup; Corn glucose; Corn sugar; Glucose; 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentahydroxy hexaldehyde
English name :α-D-glucose
English alias EXTROSE; alpha-D(+)-Glucose; alpha-D-glucose; Alpha – D – Glucopyranose; D-Glucose-12C6; Dextrose; Cornsugar; Grapesugar; Bloodsugar
CAS no. : 492-62-6
Molecular formula: C6H12O6
Molecular weight: 180.15600
Accurate mass :180.06300
Folding safety information
Danger class code :R36/37/38
Safety Description :S36/37/39-S26
Psicose (Allulose); Fructose (fructose); Sorbose (sorbose); Tagalose; Inositol (inositol)
Arlo sugar (allose); Altrose (altrose); Mannose (mannose); Gulonic (gluose); Do do fashion sugar (idose); Galactose (galactose); Talose (talose)
α -D-furan glucose; β -D-furan glucose:
α -D-pyranoglucose  :
β -D-glucopyranose  :
Under dry conditions, glucose has good stability and aqueous solution can be autoclaved. Overheat can result in a decrease in PH and caramelization of the solution.
Bulk products should be stored in dry, low temperature sealed containers.
Folding verifies the aldehyde group
The reaction of glucose solution with freshly prepared copper hydroxide suspension produces brick red precipitation. (Yellow precipitate is formed at high concentration)
Cho CH2OH (CHOH) 4 + 2 cu (OH) 2 – heat – CH2OH (CHOH) 4 cooh + Cu2O left + 2 h2o
Note: (1) The new 2Cu(OH)2 suspension should be used with, not for long.
(2) When preparing the new Cu(OH)2 suspension, the NaOH solution must be excessive.
Silver mirror reaction
Silver mirror reaction
⑶ The reaction liquid must be heated directly to boiling.
(4) Although glucose molecules contain an aldehyde group, D-glucose does not contain an aldehyde group.
The reaction of glucose solution and silver ammonia solution has silver mirror reaction
CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO+2[Ag(NH3)2OH](water bath heating)→CH2OH(CHOH)4COONH4+2Ag↓+3NH3+H2O
Note: the inner wall of the test tube must be clean
The silver ammonia solution can not be used with long time;
(3) Water bath heating, can not be directly heated with alcohol lamp;
(4) Sodium hydroxide can be added to promote the reaction;
The silver mirror can be washed by dilute HNO3 immersion.
The silver generated by heating reduction attaches to the wall of the test tube and forms a silver mirror. Therefore, this reaction is also called the silver mirror reaction .
The central nervous system relies almost entirely on the supply of blood sugar for energy, and once the blood sugar rises to 80 mg %, the phenomenon of diabetes may occur.
Industrially, glucose is produced by hydrolysis of starch. In the 1960s, microbial enzymes were used to produce glucose. This is a major innovation and has obvious advantages over acid hydrolysis. In the production of raw materials need not be refined, do not need acid, pressure resistant equipment, and sugar liquid without bitterness, sugar production rate is high.
Glucose is mainly used in medicine as an injectable nutrient (glucose injection).
In the food industry, glucose can be processed by isomerase to produce fructose, especially 42% fructose high fructose syrup, whose sweetness is the same as sucrose, has become an important product in the sugar industry.
Glucose is an indispensable nutrient for metabolism in living things. The heat released by its oxidation reaction is an important source of energy for human life activities. It can be used directly in food and medicine industry, as a reducing agent in printing and dyeing leather industry, and glucose is commonly used as a reducing agent in mirror making industry and hot water bottle silver plating process. Glucose is also widely used to synthesize vitamin C(ascorbic acid).
Glucose is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, which is why it is often used by hospital personnel, sports enthusiasts, and ordinary people as a powerful and quick energy supplement.
Glucose enhances memory, stimulates calcium absorption and increases cellular communication. But too much can raise insulin levels, leading to obesity and diabetes; Too little can cause hypoglycemia or worse, insulin shock. Glucose is important for brain function, and its metabolism can be disrupted by depression, manic depression, anorexia and bulimia. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease have reported lower glucose levels than other brain abnormalities, leading to strokes and other vascular problems. The researchers found that adding 75 grams of glucose to the diet increased performance on memory tests.
When glucose is absorbed into liver cells, it reduces the secretion of liver sugar, causing muscle and fat cells to increase glucose absorption. Excess blood glucose is converted into fatty acids and triglycerides in the liver and fat tissue.
Glucosamine is widely used clinically to provide water and heat for a variety of patients with high fever, dehydration, coma or the inability to eat. When the body loses a large number of body fluids, such as vomiting and diarrhea, large blood loss and so on, 5%~10% glucose and physiological saline can be first intravenous infusion to supplement water, salt and sugar, and used for hypoglycemia, drug poisoning. Intravenous drip of 25%~50% hypertonic solution, because of its hypertonic pressure effect, can make tissue dehydration and temporary diuretic, and mannitol combined with alternate application to treat brain edema, pulmonary edema and reduce intraocular pressure. Treatment of hypoglycemia by intravenous infusion of hypertonic glucose. Concomitant use with insulin is also one of the treatment measures for hyperkalemia because it can promote the transfer of potassium into cells.
Folding decomposition pathway
Natural glucose, whether free or combined, belongs to D configuration. It mainly exists in aqueous solution as a pyranoid oxygen-containing ring, and is a balanced mixture of α and β configurations.
At room temperature, crystals can be precipitated from supersaturated aqueous solution in the form of α -D-glucose hydrate (containing 1 water molecule), and the melting point is 80℃. The crystal precipitated between 50 ℃ and 115℃ is anhydrous α -D-glucose with melting point 146℃. The stable form of precipitation above 115℃ is β -D-glucose, and the melting point is 148~150℃. Glucose in the form of furan rings occurs only in conjugated form in a few natural compounds.
D-glucose has the chemical properties of general aldose: under the action of oxidizing agent, the formation of gluconic acid, gluconediic acid or glucuronic acid; Under the action of reducing agent, sorbitol is formed. In the presence of a weak base, glucose and two other similar six-carbon sugars, fructose and mannose, can be converted to each other in the enol form. Glucose also combines with phenylhydrazine to form glucose ‘s osazone, which is different from other sugars in terms of crystallization shape and melting point and is used as a means of determining glucose.
Most organisms have enzyme systems capable of breaking down D-glucose for energy. In living cells, such as mammals muscle cells or single-celled yeast cells, glucose successively after aerobic glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle and biological oxidation process of aerobic generates carbon dioxide and water, release more energy, in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stored, for growth, sport and other life activities. In the absence of oxygen, glucose is simply broken down to produce lactic acid or ethanol, with much less energy released. Winemaking is an anaerobic process of decomposition. In industry, glucose produced by hydrolysis of starch with acid or enzyme can be used as raw material for food, wine, pharmaceutical and other industrial production.
Fold edit this section of pharmacopoeia standards
Folding source (name), content (potency)
This product is D-(+) -pyranoglucose – hydrate.
This product is colorless crystalline or white crystalline or granular powder; Odorless and sweet.
This product is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol.
Than the curl
Take about 10g of this product, weigh it accurately, put it in a 100ml measuring bottle, add an appropriate amount of water and 0.2ml of ammonia test solution, dissolve it, dilute it with water to scale, and leave it well for 10 minutes. At 25℃, the specific curl was determined according to law (Appendix ⅵ E, Part II of Pharmacopoeia, 2010 edition), with a range of +52.6° to +53.2°.
Fold to identify
(1) Take about 0.2g of the product, add 5ml of water to dissolve it, and slowly drop it into the lukewarm alkaline cuprous tartrate test solution to generate red cuprous oxide precipitation.
(2) An appropriate amount of the product under drying weight loss was taken and determined according to law. The infrared absorption spectrum of the product should be consistent with the control spectrum (Figure 702 in Infrared Spectrum of Medicines).
1 the acidity
Take 2.0g of the product, add 20mL of water to dissolve, then add 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution and 0.20ml of sodium hydroxide titration solution (0.02mol/L), which should be pink.
.2 Clarity and color of solution
Take 5.0g of the product, heat water to dissolve, cool, dilute to 10ml with water, the solution should be clear colorless; If it is cloudy, it should not be thicker than that of turbidity Standard solution No. 1 (Appendix IX B, Part II of Pharmacopoeia, 2010 edition). If the color is displayed, it should not be deeper than that of the control solution (3.0ml colorimetric cobalt chloride solution, 3.0ml colorimetric potassium dichromate solution and 6.0ml colorimetric copper sulfate solution, diluted to 50mL with water) diluted to 10mL with 1.0mL water.
3 clarification of ethanol solution
Take 1.0g of the product, add 20ml of ethanol, place in water bath, heat reflux for about 40 minutes, the solution should be clarified.
Take 0.60g of this product and check it according to law (Appendix ⅷ A, Part II, Pharmacopoeia, 2010 edition). It should not be thicker (0.01%) than the standard sodium chloride solution made of 6.0ml.
Take 2.0g of this product and check it according to law (Appendix ⅷ B, Part II, Pharmacopoeia, 2010 edition). It should not be thicker (0.01%) than the standard potassium sulfate solution made of 2.0ml.
Sulfites and soluble starch
Take 1.0g of this product, add 10ml of water to dissolve, add 1 drop of iodine test solution, should immediately show yellow.
7 Dry weight loss
The product was dried at 105℃ to constant weight, and the weight loss was 7.5%-9.5% (Appendix ⅷ L, Part II, Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition).
8 Burning residue
Not more than 0.1%(Appendix ⅷ N, Part II, 2010 Edition of Pharmacopoeia).
Take 1.0g of the product, add 10ml water to dissolve, then add sulfosalicylic acid solution (1→5)3ml, no precipitation.
10 barium salt
Take 2.0g of the product, add 20ml of water to dissolve it, then divide the solution into two equal parts, add 1ml of dilute sulfuric acid to one part, and 1ml of medium water to the other part, shake well and leave for 15 minutes, both liquids should be clarified.
11 calcium salt
Take 1.0g of the product, add 10ml of water to dissolve it, add 1ml of ammonia test solution and 5ml of ammonium oxalate test solution, shake well, place for 1 hour, if turbidity occurs, mix with standard calcium solution (precisely weigh 0.1250g of calcium carbonate, place in a 500ml measuring bottle, add 5ml of water and 0.5ml of hydrochloric acid to dissolve, dilute to scale with water, shake well. 1ml of calcium (Ca) equivalent to 0.1mg [1.0ml of control liquid, not thicker (0.01%).
Take 2.0g of the product, add 20ml of water to dissolve it, add 3 drops of nitric acid, slowly boil it for 5 minutes, cool it, dilute it with water to make 45ml, add 3.0ml of ammonium thiocyanate solution (30→100), shake it well, if it shows color, it should not be deeper (0.001%) than the standard iron solution 2.0ml made by the same method.
13 the heavy metal
Take 4.0g of this product, add 23ml of water to dissolve it, then add 2ml of acetate buffer solution (pH 3.5), check according to law (Method ⅷ H, The first method of Appendix II of Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition), the content of heavy metals should not exceed 5 parts per million.
14 arsenic salt
Take 2.0g of the product, add 5ml of water to dissolve it, then add 5ml of dilute sulfuric acid and 0.5ml of potassium bromide test solution, place it in a water bath and heat it for about 20 minutes to keep a little excess bromine. If necessary, add an appropriate amount of potassium bromide test solution, replenish the evaporated water at any time, cool it, add 5ml of hydrochloric acid and appropriate amount of water to make it 28ml. Inspection in accordance with the law (2010 edition of pharmacopoeia Ii Appendix ⅷ J First Method), should comply with the provisions (0.0001%).
15 Microbial limit
10g of the product was prepared into 1:10 test solution with pH 7.0 aseptic sodium chlorine-peptone buffer.
Number of bacteria, molds and yeasts
The test solution was taken and inspected according to law (2010 Version of Pharmacopoeia part II Appendix J plate method). The number of bacteria and total number of mold and yeast should not exceed 1000cfu per 1g of the test sample.
10ml of 1:10 test solution was taken and examined according to law (2010 version of pharmacopoeia part ii appendix J).
Fold the category
Fold the preparation
(1) glucose injection (2) glucose powder (3) glucose sodium chloride injection (4) Compound sodium lactate glucose injection
Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 2010 edition
Folding tolerance test
In clinical diagnosis of diabetes, venous fasting glucose is usually measured. When the venous fasting blood glucose was less than 5.0mmol/L, diabetes could be excluded. When the venous fasting blood glucose >7.0mmol/L and clinical symptoms, the diagnosis of diabetes; When the venous fasting glucose is between 5.5 and 7.0mmol/L and diabetes is suspected, a glucose tolerance test (OGTT) should be further performed. The OGTT test is an oral glucose load test to understand the body's ability to regulate blood glucose after eating glucose. Through OGTT test, abnormal glucose metabolism can be found early and diabetes can be diagnosed early.
Folded glucose tolerance
Glucose tolerance is the body's ability to regulate blood sugar concentration. After normal people eat rice, noodle staple food or take glucose, almost all of it is absorbed by the intestine, which increases blood glucose, stimulates insulin secretion, increases liver glycogen synthesis, inhibits decomposition, decreases liver sugar output, and increases the utilization of glucose by tissues in the body. Therefore, the highest blood glucose after meal is not more than 10.0mmol/L. And eating more or less blood sugar is maintained in a relatively stable range. This shows that normal people have a strong tolerance to glucose, that is, glucose tolerance is normal. However, if insulin secretion is insufficient, 75g of glucose can exceed 7.8mmol/L 2 hours after oral administration, which can be equal to or greater than 11.1mmol/L, indicating that the person has reduced glucose tolerance.
Folded glucose tolerance test
It was detected by a glucose tolerance test.
Methods: After a certain amount of glucose was taken orally, blood glucose was measured at regular intervals.
[Project name] Glucose tolerance experiment
After taking a certain amount of glucose orally, the glucose content in blood was measured regularly. If the blood glucose increased slightly after taking the glucose, the concentration would return to normal within two hours. If the blood glucose concentration increases sharply after taking the medicine, it is abnormal if the blood glucose concentration cannot be restored within 2-3 hours. Clinically, this experiment is often used to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with no obvious symptoms.
WHO standardized OGTT:
WHO recommends 75g glucose for adults, 100g for pregnant women and 1.75g per kg body weight for children. The total amount ≤75g should be dissolved in 250mL water and taken orally within 5 minutes. Abdominal blood was evacuated before taking sugar, and blood was taken every 30 minutes after taking sugar, four times in total. Blood was collected and urine was taken every 1 hour to measure urine sugar. Glucose tolerance curves were plotted according to each blood glucose level.
The daily sugar content in food should not be less than 150 g for three days before the test, and normal activities should be maintained. Drugs affecting the test should be discontinued three days before the test. No smoking, coffee, tea or food should be consumed throughout the study.
① Without symptoms of diabetes, random or abnormal fasting blood glucose;
② No diabetes symptoms, transient or persistent diabetes;
③ No symptoms of diabetes, but a significant family history of diabetes;
(4) Diabetes symptoms, but random or fasting blood glucose is not enough diagnostic criteria;
⑤ Pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, liver disease, infection, diabetes;
(6) Women who delivered large fetuses or individuals with a history of large fetuses;
Kidney disease or retinopathy of unknown cause.
Fold the dosage form
Injection: 5%(250ml, 500ml), 10%(500ml), 25%(20ml), 50%(20ml) per bottle; 2. Injection (powder):250g, 500g.
Pharmacological action of folding
It can be summarized as nutrition, detoxification, heart strengthening and diuretic. It is physiological sugar and the main source of energy needed by the body. It is oxidized in the body to carbon dioxide and water and provides heat at the same time, stored as glycogen. It has protective effect and detoxification function to liver, and can promote the excretion of poison.
Oral absorption is rapid, into the body to be used by tissues, normal people use glucose capacity of 6mg/kg.
Contraindications for folding
Contraindicated in patients with hypotonic dehydration.
Matters needing attention
1. Patients with hypokalemia, diabetes, diabetes insipidus and renal insufficiency should use with caution.
2. In the process of using high concentration sugar solution, sudden withdrawal may cause hypoglycemia.
3. Peripheral intravenous infusion of hypertonic glucose is prone to phlebitis and thrombosis, and extravasal leakage can stimulate local tissues.
4. Glucose is hygroscopic and mildew prone, so the configuration and use of injections should be strictly aseptic.
5. In winter, it should be heated to close to body temperature first, and then quietly injected slowly to avoid causing vasospasm.
Adverse folding reaction
(1) Gastrointestinal reaction, such as nausea and vomiting, occurs when oral concentration is too high or too fast. ⑵ Reactive hypoglycemia.
Dosage depends on the condition.
Glucose plays an important role in the metabolism of the human body, so the United States Pharmacopoeia contains calcium gluconate injections, tablets, potassium gluconate, ferric gluconate, etc., and is produced in large quantities in the United States. In the food processing industry is very developed in Japan, explicitly specify the glucose acid on the certificate of food additives, glucose acid – delta – lactone, zinc gluconate, calcium gluconate, ferrous gluconate, glucose acid copper can be used as food additives, glucose as raw material processing, in addition to manufacturing the crystallization of glucose acid, glucose acid – delta lactone, also can make all kinds of salt, Such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper and other trace elements necessary for human body, human body lack it, disease occurs, such as lack of iron can cause anemia, because iron is organization part of hemoglobin and myoglobin, participate in the oxidation and conveying carbon dioxide, ferrous sulfate to treat anemia in the past, the human body can absorb, but stimulate gastrointestinal, will cause a series of adverse reactions, Therefore, after the use of ferrous gluconate, gastrointestinal reaction is not obvious, iron effect is good, in view of this situation, the state regulations, potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese and other gluconate as human nutritional fortifier and medicinal supplements, such drugs have very good therapeutic effect.
Long-term, scientific and reasonable use, the improvement of a nation’s physical quality is self-evident, according to a Japanese statistics, after world War II, the average height of Japanese teenagers increased 14.8cm, which is inseparable from their scientific and reasonable use of trace element gluconic acid in food and drug manufacturing. In China, the well-known calcium gluconate injection, tablet and zinc gluconate oral liquid all have important physiological and therapeutic functions. “Juergen calcium” and “Iron supplementation oral liquid” are sold well all over the country, which is a sufficient verification.
Sugar, protein and fat are the most important nutrients for children’s normal growth and development. Sugars (carbohydrates) are the main source of heat in the body. Glucose is a monosaccharide that can be used directly in the body. 1~6 months baby, the carbohydrate in food is lactose and a little starch mainly. After 4 months, starchy food gradually increases, and by the age of 1 year, the various enzyme systems in the gastrointestinal tract for the digestion of starch are gradually improved, which can rapidly hydrolyze it into glucose and absorb it into the blood in the small intestine. After absorption can be directly supplied with energy, or stored in the form of glycogen, excess can become fat.
The human body usually does not eat glucose, the body will not lack glucose, therefore, usually do not need to supplement. But when children in the disease, anorexia, physique extremely weak, in order to ensure the needs of children’s basic metabolic calories, short-term feeding with glucose, is desirable, sometimes intravenous glucose, is this truth. But that glucose nutritional value is high, too much for too long to give feeding, while ignoring other food supply, can affect children’s appetite, and because protein and other nutrients can not be supplemented, will lead to growth retardation, serious repeated infection, malnutrition, etc.. Still can rise because of blood sugar, cause a sexual sugar urine, and produce thirsty, drink much urine symptom.
In children, the glands producing other digestive enzymes in the digestive tract are abandoned, which will lead to atrophy and further decline in digestive function, making it more unable to eat other kinds of food. Normal children should try their best to eat more starch food and practice chewing, so as to promote the secretion of salivary glands, enhance appetite and digestive function, and benefit the development of maxillofacial bones and teeth .
Folding drug interactions
(1) When intravenous infusion of hypertonic glucose injection, attention should be paid to whether the liquid medicine leaks out of the blood vessel, so as not to cause phlebitis. The same complications can also occur when the liquid medicine with 5%-10% concentration is continuously injected at the same site.
(2) For the treatment of cerebral edema, such as sudden withdrawal of hypertonic solution, it is easy to rebound phenomenon and cause brain edema to occur again, so it is not sudden withdrawal, but should be slowly reduced until withdrawal.
(3) It is not advisable to do subcutaneous injection, so as not to cause subcutaneous necrosis.
(4) In cases of intracranial or spinal cord hemorrhage and delirium in dehydrated patients, hypertonic glucose injection is prohibited to avoid accidents .
Folding edit this section of expert comments
Hypertonic glucose, potassium, and insulin (30 to 40mmol of potassium per 1000 calories of glucose). From the point of view of nutrition, the heat energy needed by the critically ill patients under stress state should be provided by fat emulsion and compound amino acid preparation.
Post time: Sep-15-2021