what is calcium chloride


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what is calcium chloride

Calcium chloride free edit add meaning name
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Calcium chloride is a chemical composed of the elements chlorine and calcium, the chemical formula CaCl2, slightly bitter. It is a typical ionic halide, white, hard fragments or particles at room temperature. Common applications include brine for refrigeration, road deicing and desiccant.

The basic information
Chinese name
Calcium chloride

Foreign names
Calcium chloride

The alias
Anhydrous calcium chloride

Chemical formula
CaCl ₂

The molecular weight

The CAS login no.

EINECS no. Login
Melting point
772 ℃

The boiling point
1600 ℃

Water soluble
Soluble in water and exothermic when dissolved

The density of
2.15 g/cm after

White particles or powder

Control type
Don’t control

1 Physical Properties
2 Chemical properties
3 Preparation Method
4 Identification Methods
5 Main Applications
6 Precautions
7 Relevant limits
8 toxicology
9 Risk Terminology
Fold edit this section physical properties
Colorless cubic crystals, white or grayish white, granular, honeycomb block, spherical, irregular granular, powdery. Slightly poisonous, odorless, slightly bitter taste. Extremely hygroscopic and easily deliquescent when exposed to air. It is soluble in water, with a solubility of 74.5g /100g water at 20℃, and emits a lot of heat (the enthalpy of dissolution of calcium chloride is -176.2 CAL /g), and its aqueous solution is slightly acidic. Soluble in a variety of polar, protic solvents, at 20℃ in the following solvents solubility (g/100mL solvent): methanol :29.2, anhydrous ethanol :25.8, n-propanol :15.8, n-butanol :25.0, n-amyl alcohol :11.5, ethylene glycol :21.6(25℃), formic acid :43.1, acetic acid :15.0(30℃), Hydrazine: 16.0. But in dipole solvent and low polar solvent, such as ether, tetrahydrofuran and so on, only slightly soluble or insoluble. It reacts with ammonia or alcohol to form CaCl2·8NH3 and CaCl2·4C2H5OH complexes, respectively. Hexahydrate precipitates from solution crystallization at low temperature, which is dissolved in its own crystalline water when heated to 30℃ gradually, and gradually loses water when heated to 200℃, and then becomes white porous anhydrous calcium chloride when heated to 260℃. In the process of heating and dehydration, part of calcium chloride hydrate occurs hydrolysis reaction, so the product often contains a small amount of CaO impurities.

Fold edit this section of chemical properties

PH value of 5% aqueous solution is 4.5~9.2. 1.7% aqueous solution isotonic with serum. This product is made of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid as raw materials. It is an antidote to magnesium poisoning. Calcium ion can form insoluble calcium fluoride with fluoride, which can be used to rescue fluorosis.

Chemical reaction equation

Calcium chloride with higher solubility can undergo a double decomposition reaction to generate precipitation with lower solubility:

3 CaCl2 + 2k3po4 →Ca3(PO4)2 (s) + 6kCl

CaCl2 + K2SO4 →CaSO4 + 2KCl (aq)

Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 KCl (aq)

CaCl2 + K2CO3(aq) →CaCO3(s) + 2KCl (aq)

CaCl2 + 2kf (aq) →CaF2 + 2kCl (aq)

Pure calcium can be obtained after calcium chloride electrolysis:

CaCl2, Ca (s) + Cl2 (g)

Toxicity of the material

Serial number

Toxic type

The test method

The test object

Using the dose

Toxic effect


Acute toxicity


Adult women

20 mg/kg/1H-C

1. Skin and accessory toxicity — dermatitis (after systemic exposure)

2. Nutrient and metabolic toxicity — changes in calcium concentration


Acute toxicity


The rat

1 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Intraperitoneal injection of

The rat

264 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection

The rat

2630 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The rat

161 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The rat

25 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity



1940 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Intraperitoneal injection of


210 mg/kg

1. Behavioral toxicity — drowsiness

2. Behavioral toxicity — convulsion or seizure thresholds are affected

3. Behavioral toxicity — Changes in sports behavior (specific analysis)


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection


823 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity



42 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection

The dog

274 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The dog

274 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection

The cat

249 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The cat

249 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The rabbit

1384 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection

The rabbit

472 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


The rabbit

274 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


Guinea pigs

150 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity


Guinea pigs

300 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Acute toxicity

Subcutaneous injection

The frog

666 mg/kg

Detailed effects are not reported for values other than lethal dose


Chronic toxicity


The rat

2016 mg/kg/30D-I

1. Brain toxicity — affects a specific region of the central nervous system

2. Cardiotoxicity pulse rate changes

3. Blood toxicity — changes in white blood cell count


Chronic toxicity

The suction


43 mg/m3/4H/17W-I

1. Hematotoxicity — changes in clotting factors

2. Hematotoxicity — changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

3. Biochemical toxicity – inhibition or induction of catalase


Toxicity of mutations

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

200 mmol/L


Toxicity of mutations

Intraperitoneal injection of

The rat

2500 umol/kg


Toxicity of mutations

Aqua tumor cells from rat

3500 mg/kg




The rat

112 mg/kg/20W-C

1. Carcinogenicity — possibly carcinogenic (according to RTECS)

2. Endocrine toxicity — thyroid tumors

Computational chemical data

1. Reference value of hydrophobic parameter Calculation (XlogP):

2. Number of hydrogen bond donors :1

3. Number of hydrogen bond receptors :3

4. Number of rotatable chemical bonds :0

5. Number of tautomers:

6. Polar surface area of topological molecules (TPSA):1

7. Number of heavy atoms :4

8. Surface charge :0

9. Complexity :0

10. Isotope atomic number :0

11. Determine the number of atomic centers :0

12. Number of uncertain atomic centers :0

13. Determine the number of chemical bond centers :0

14. Number of uncertain chemical bond centers :0

15. Number of covalent bond units :4


1. The reaction of titanium and calcium chloride at high temperature, both solid, is heated to about 1100℃

The metal activity of calcium is stronger than titanium, so titanium will not replace calcium in calcium chloride at high temperature. These two substances do not combine at high temperature either.

2. The pungent gas produced when “sodium pyrosulfite” is added to water with “anhydrous calcium chloride”

The gas released is SO2. With or without anhydrous calcium chloride, sodium metabisulfite itself has a pungent smell and will release a small amount of SO2 due to hydrolysis after water solution. It does not react with calcium chloride by itself, except when two solids are mixed and very little water is added. On the one hand, sodium metabisulfite hydrolyzes, on the other hand, CaCl2 combines with water to form crystals, which makes it possible to release more SO2. If they’re both in dilute solution, it doesn’t matter much.

3. Solid calcium chloride reacts with oxygen

Solid calcium chloride does not react with oxygen so nothing else can be formed solid calcium chloride, liquid calcium chloride, or gaseous calcium chloride (if it exists in any of those states) does not react with oxygen.

Fold edit this section preparation method
1, two water calcium chloride (dehydration) method:

The edible calcium chloride dihydrate was dried and dehydrated at 200~300℃ to prepare the edible anhydrous calcium chloride.

Its chemical reaction equation :CaCl2·2H2O–[260℃]→CaCl2+2H2O

For neutral calcium chloride solution, spray drying tower can be used to spray drying dehydration under 300℃ hot air flow, to prepare anhydrous calcium chloride powder product.

2. Spray drying dewatering method: The refined neutral calcium chloride solution, which has been removed arsenic and heavy metals, is sprayed into mist from the top of the spray drying tower through the nozzle, and countercurrent contact with 300℃ hot air to dry and dehydrate, and the powder anhydrous calcium chloride is obtained, and the edible anhydrous calcium chloride is prepared.

3, mother liquor method:

From ammonia alkali method soda mother liquid, add lime milk and water solution, evaporation, concentration, cooling, solidification.

4. Double decomposition method:

Calcium carbonate (limestone) and hydrochloric acid from the action.

Chemical reaction equation :CaCO3+2HCl=CaCl2+H2O+CO2↑.

After the above steps are complete, heat to 260 degrees Celsius for evaporation and dehydration.

5, refining method:

The by-products of sodium hypochlorite are refined.

Refined as a by-product of the Solvay process for the preparation of sodium carbonate. (Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl → CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O)


Authentication method
To identify

A 10% sample solution (calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride CaCl2) was prepared, and the calcium salt (IT-10) and chloride (IT-12) tests were positive.

Content analysis

Take about 1.5g of the sample (if it is anhydrous calcium chloride, about 1g of the sample), weigh it accurately, put it into a 250ml volumetric bottle, dissolve it with a mixture of 100mL water and 5ml diluted hydrochloric acid test solution (TS-117), and mix it with water at a constant volume. Put 50.0ml of this solution into an appropriate container, add 50ml of water, add 0.05mol/L disodium EDTA solution about 30ml from a 50ml buret under agitation (preferably with mechanical agitation), then add 15ml sodium hydroxide test solution (ts-224) and 300mg of hydroxynaphthol blue indicator, And continue to titrate until you get blue. 0.05 mol/L EDTA disodium solution per ml was equivalent to 7.551mg CaCl2·2H2O. For anhydrous calcium chloride, 0.05mol/L EDTA disodium solution per ml is equivalent to CaCl25.550mg.

Folding edit this section is mainly used
Industrial USES

1, used as a multi-purpose desiccant, such as for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide and other gas drying. Used as dehydrating agent in the production of alcohols, esters, ethers and acrylic resins. Calcium chloride aqueous solution is an important refrigerant for refrigeration and ice making, which can accelerate the hardening of concrete and increase the cold resistance of building mortar, and is an excellent anti-freezing agent for building. Used as a fogging agent in port and road dust collector, fabric fire retardant. Used as protective agent and refining agent in aluminum and magnesium metallurgy. It is a precipitant for producing lake pigments. Used for deinking waste paper processing. It is the raw material for producing calcium salt.

2, chelating agent; Curing agent; Calcium fortifier; Refrigerant for refrigeration; Desiccant; Anticaking agent. Antibacterial agent; Curing agent; Tissue improver.

3, used as a desiccant, road dust collector, antifogging agent, fabric fireproofing agent, food preservative and used for manufacturing calcium salt

4, used as lubricating oil additives

5. Used as an analytical reagent

6, mainly used for the treatment of blood calcium reduction caused by tetany, urticaria, exudative edema, intestinal and ureteral colic, magnesium poisoning, etc

7, used as calcium fortifier, curing agent, chelating agent and desiccant in the food industry.

8, can increase the permeability of bacterial cell wall.

Medical use


1, the product can be used for intestinal colic, etc.

2. It can be used for pruritus skin diseases.

3. Used to relieve magnesium salt poisoning.

4, used for vitamin D deficiency rickets, rickets, pregnant and lactating women calcium salt supplement.

5, the treatment of calcium deficiency, acute hypocalcemia, alkali poisoning and parathyroid tetany caused by hypothyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, etc.;

6, allergic diseases;

7, magnesium poisoning rescue;

8. Rescue of fluorosis;

9, cardiac resuscitation application, such as hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, or the rescue of cardiac dysfunction caused by calcium channel block.

10, calcium chloride solution can induce actin monomer polymerization, and the critical concentration of actin monomer polymerization and calcium chloride solution concentration showed a regression function. The specific mechanism of actin induced polymerization is related to the binding of calcium ions to several specific sites of the protein

Dosage and usage:

Dilute 10% to 20mL of 5% calcium chloride solution with 25% glucose solution for 1 time and then inject slowly.

Matters needing attention:

1. During intravenous injection, the whole body may feel hot. Injection should be slow (no more than 2ml per minute), because calcium salt stimulates the heart, too fast injection will make blood calcium concentration suddenly increased, causing arrhythmia, even cardiac arrest.

2. Avoid using this product during the application of cardiac glycoside or within 7 days after withdrawal.

3, strong irritation, 5% solution can not be injected directly, should be diluted with the same amount of glucose solution before injection. Also not suitable for skin or muscle injection.

4. Injection should not leak out of blood vessels, otherwise it will lead to severe pain and tissue necrosis. If there is leakage outside the blood vessel, local sealing with 5% procaine solution should be done immediately.

5, children dosage: low calcium treatment amount of 25mg/kg(6.8mg calcium), intravenous drip slowly.

Specification: Injection: each 0.3g(10ml), 0.5g(10ml), 0.6g(20ml), 1g(20ml)

Medication for children:

In general, this product is not used in children.

Adverse reactions:

Intravenous injection may cause systemic fever, intravenous injection too fast may produce nausea, vomiting, arrhythmia and even cardiac arrest. Early signs of hypercalcemia include constipation, drowsiness, persistent headache, loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, and abnormal dry mouth. Later signs include confusion, hypertension, eye and skin sensitivity to light, and nausea.

In biological and medical research, calcium chloride is widely used in preparing buffer for biomedical experiments, such as adding ND96 reserve solution prepared by CaCl2 for separated oocytes in the research of a new activator for potassium ion channel complex. In order to study the function of guanozyl cyclase C on midbrain dopamine neurons, CaCl2 was used to prepare brain slices. In the study of bacteria and archaea used to resist fluorine toxicity of the fluorine switch with 1mmol/L concentration of CaCl2 series labeling experiment.

In the process of introducing the gene into the recipient cell, calcium chloride can be used to increase the permeability of the recipient cell membrane, making it easier for the plasmid to be introduced, a method discovered by Stanley Norman Cohen, a geneticist at Stanford University, while studying E. coli in 1972.

Hypocalcemia can be treated by intravenous administration of a 10% calcium chloride solution. Calcium chloride can also be used to treat magnesium poisoning. Ecg measurements showed that injection of calcium chloride solution was effective against cardiotoxicity. In the case of high serum potassium concentration caused by hyperkalemia, calcium chloride can protect the myocardial layer and prevent arrhythmia. Calcium chloride, routinely available in U.S. hospital emergency rooms, is a quick treatment for calcium channel blocker poisonings that are caused by deltiapine side effects for heart disease prevention and hydrofluoric acid poisonings, but not an effective detoxification for black widow spider bites. Calcium chloride sodium bromide injection has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration as a water and electrolyte regulator in China.


Granular anhydrous calcium chloride is often used as a desiccant to fill the drying tube, and kelp (or sea grass ash) dried with calcium chloride can be used in the production of soda ash. Some home dehumidifiers use calcium chloride to absorb moisture from the air. Calcium chloride can also be used as a desiccant or dehydrating agent for gas and organic liquids. Because calcium chloride is neutral, it can dry acidic or alkaline gases and organic liquids, but also in the laboratory to make a small amount of gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and so on when drying these produced gases. However, it cannot be used to dry ethanol and ammonia, because ethanol and ammonia react with calcium chloride to produce alcohol complex CaCl2·4C2H5OH and ammonia complex CaCl2·8NH3, respectively. Anhydrous calcium chloride can also be made into household products and used as an air hygroscopic agent. Anhydrous calcium chloride has been approved by the FDA as a water absorbent for emergency dressing and its role is to ensure that the wound site is dry.

The anhydrous calcium chloride is spread on the gravel road surface, and the moisture absorption of anhydrous calcium chloride is used to condense the moisture in the air to keep the road surface moist when the air humidity is lower than the dew point, so as to control the rise of dust on the road.

Deicing agent and cooling bath

Calcium chloride can lower the freezing point of water. Spreading calcium chloride hydrate on the road can prevent freezing and deicing and melting snow, but the salt water after the melting of snow and ice will destroy the soil and vegetation along the road and deteriorate the pavement concrete.

Calcium chloride solution can also be mixed with dry ice to make a low temperature cooling bath. Rods of dry ice are added in batches to the brine solution until ice is present in the system. Different kinds and concentrations of salt solution can maintain the cooling bath stability temperature will be different. Common salt and calcium chloride as raw materials, by adjusting the concentration to obtain the required temperature, not only because the calcium chloride tap cheaply, and because the eutectic temperature of the calcium chloride solution (that is, the solution for the temperature of the formation of granular ice sand son) is quite low, can reach 51.0 ℃, which makes the adjustable temperature ranges from 0 ℃ to – 51 ℃. This method can be realized in dewar bottles which can play the effect of heat preservation, or in dewar bottles which have limited volume and need to prepare more salt solution at the same time, the use of general plastic containers to hold the cooling bath, in this case, the maintenance of temperature is also relatively stable.

The source of calcium ions

Adding calcium chloride to the pool water makes the pool water a pH buffer and increases the hardness of the pool water, which reduces erosion of the pool wall concrete. According to Le Chatelier’s principle and co-ionic effect, increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the pool water slows down the dissolution of calcium compounds essential to concrete structure.

Adding calcium chloride to Marine aquarium water increases the amount of bioavailable calcium, which is used by aquarium mollusks and coelenterates to form calcium carbonate shells. Adding calcium chloride is the fastest method and has the least impact on the pH of the water, although the same can be achieved with calcium hydroxide or a calcium reactor.


As a food ingredient, calcium chloride can act as a multivalent chelating agent and curing agent. It has been approved for use as a food additive by the European Union, E code is E509. Recognized as “Generally recognized as safe” by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It is estimated that people consume 160 to 345 mg of calcium chloride as a food additive per day.

Calcium chloride can be used as curing agent in canned vegetables. It also solidifies soy curds into tofu and serves as an ingredient in molecular gastronic cooking by reacting with sodium alginate to gelatinize the surfaces of vegetables and fruit juices into caviar-like pellets. As an electrolyte added to sports drinks or some soft drinks include bottled water. Because calcium chloride itself has a very strong saltiness, it can be used instead of salt in the production of pickles without increasing the sodium content of food. The properties of calcium chloride, which lowers the freezing point, are used in caramel-filled chocolate bars to delay the freezing of caramel.

Calcium chloride is added to the mineral-deficient beer brewing liquid, as calcium ions are one of the most influential minerals in beer brewing, affecting the acidity of the wort and the function of yeast. And calcium chloride gives the brewed beer a sweet taste.

Other aspects

Calcium chloride hydrate solid can be used as phase change energy storage material. For example, calcium chloride hexahydrate can be used as a medium and low temperature for industrial waste heat recovery and solar radiation heat absorption and utilization due to its melting point of 30℃ and melting heat (i.e. the heat absorbed in the process of material changing from solid phase to liquid phase at the same temperature) up to 190 KJ/mol. However, it is similar to all inorganic hydrated salt phase change materials. There is a serious problem of undercooling (the degree of undercooling reaches 20°C), which needs to be overcome by adding nucleating agent.

Calcium chloride helps speed up initial setting in concrete, but chloride ions cause corrosion of steel bars, so calcium chloride should not be used in reinforced concrete. Anhydrous calcium chloride can provide a certain degree of moisture to concrete due to its hygroscopicity.

Calcium chloride is also used as an additive in plastics and fire extinguishers, as a filter aid in wastewater treatment, as an additive in blast furnaces to control the aggregation and adhesion of raw materials to avoid settling of charge, and as a diluent in fabric softeners.

The dissolving and exothermic nature of calcium chloride makes it useful in self-heating cans and heating pads.

In the petroleum industry, calcium chloride is used to increase the density of solid-free brine and can also be added to the aqueous phase of emulsified drilling fluids to inhibit clay swelling. As a flux in David process of electrolytic melting of sodium chloride to produce metal sodium as a flux to reduce the melting point. When ceramics are made, calcium chloride is used as a material ingredient, which suspends clay particles in solution, making them easier to use when grouting.

Matters needing attention
Hazard Overview

Invasion route: dust inhalation, ingestion

Health hazards: dust can burn, stimulate the nasal cavity, mouth, throat, but also cause nasal bleeding and damage nasal tissue; Dry powder can irritate the skin, and solutions can severely irritate or even burn the skin

Skin contact: take off contaminated clothing and rinse with plenty of running water.

Eye contact: lift eyelid, rinse with running water or normal saline. Go to a doctor.

Inhalation: Away from site to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Go to a doctor.

Eat: drink enough warm water to induce vomiting. Go to a doctor.

Hypercalcemia from medical injections: cardiac arrest.

Emergency treatment

Isolate contaminated areas and restrict access. Avoid dust, carefully sweep, transfer to a safe place in a bag or transport to a waste disposal site for disposal.

Operation Precautions

Closed operation, strengthen ventilation. Operators must be specially trained and strictly abide by the operating procedures. It is recommended that operators wear self-priming filter dust masks to avoid dust. Handling should be carried lightly to prevent damage to packaging and containers.

Storage Precautions

Store in a cool, ventilated warehouse. The packing containers must be sealed against moisture. Keep deliquescent items apart.

Fold edit this section related limit
1.GB 2760-96: Coagulant for canned and soybean products, GMP; Processing AIDS.

GB 2760-2001: Soft drinks 0.44~3.7g/kg; Modulated water 100mg/L(Ca 36rng/L).

2.FAO/WHO(1984, mg/kg): Canned tomato, sliced 800, whole 450(calculated by Ca); Canned grapes 350(in Ca); Canned peas, strawberries, fruit salad, etc. 350(Ca); Canned ripe peas 350(in Ca); Jam and jelly 200(in Ca); Low concentrated milk, sweetened condensed milk, thin cream, 2g/kg alone, 3g/kg combined with other stabilizers (anhydrous count); Milk powder, cream powder 5g/kg(anhydrous count); Pickled cucumber 250; General cheese is 200 of the milk used.

3.GB 14880-94: As nutritional fortifier, same as “01202, calcium glycerophosphate “.

4.FDA, §184.1193(2000): 0.3% roasted food and dairy products; Non-alcoholic beverage and beverage stock 10.22 %; Cheese, processed fruits and juices, grates and sauces 0.2%; Coffee and tea 0.3294; 0.4% for sugar products; Jam and jelly 0.1%; Meat products 0.25%; Vegetable protein products 2.0%; Processed vegetable juice 0.4%; Other food 0.05%.

USDA, 9CFR, §381.7, §381.147(2000): Protease solution for dipping or injecting raw meat, ≤3% by weight of raw raw material.

6. As a coagulant for bean curd, 4%~6% solution is added to soybean milk, and the general dosage is 20~25g calcium chloride /L soybean milk. Impregnated fruit and vegetable with calcium chloride solution, after sterilization, it is crisp and hard, and has color protection effect. For example, it is used in canned food such as apples, whole tomatoes, mixed vegetables and winter melon.

7. Japan has the highest usage of 2.2%(calcium 1%).

Fold edit this section toxicology
Calcium chloride can make moist skin dehydration and irritation, solid anhydrous calcium chloride dissolved when a large amount of heat, if accidentally ingested can cause oral and esophageal burns. Ingestion of concentrated solutions or solids of calcium chloride may cause gastrointestinal irritation or ulcers.

Fold edit this paragraph for risk terms
R20 harmful by inhalation.

R21 harmful in contact with skin.

R37 stimulates the respiratory system.

R38 irritates skin.

Post time: Oct-12-2021